Spencer, H.G., Marshall, B.A., Willan, R.C. 2002 Phylum Mollusca: clams, snails, chitons, squids, octopuses and kin. In Gordon, D.P. (ed.), The New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity: A Species 2000 Symposium Review, University of Canterbury Press (p.1)
Key to Geographical Ranges
The symbols K.A.C.F.M.An. are used to indicate the geographical range of the species.
They have been adopted to give an approximation of the range of each species within New Zealand.
Aupourian - Kaipara Harbour, north around North Cape, encompassing the Three Kings Islands and south to East Cape
Cookian - Lower North Island and the northern part of the South Island