Gemmell, M.R., Trewick, S.A., Crampton, J.S., Vaux, F., Hills, S.F.K., Daly, E.E., Marshall, B.A., Beu, A.G., Morgan-Richards, M. 2018 Genetic structure and shell shape variation within a rocky shore whelk suggest both diverging and constraining selection with gene flow, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 20 (p.1)
Powell, A.W.B. 1979New Zealand Mollusca: Marine, Land and Freshwater Shells, Collins, Auckland (p.199)
Key to Geographical Ranges
The symbols K.A.C.F.M.An. are used to indicate the geographical range of the species.
They have been adopted to give an approximation of the range of each species within New Zealand.
Aupourian - Kaipara Harbour, north around North Cape, encompassing the Three Kings Islands and south to East Cape
Cookian - Lower North Island and the northern part of the South Island