O'Shea, S. 1999 The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Octopoda (Mollusca: Cephalopoda), NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, Wellington, 112 (p.202)
Kubodera, T. 1990 Onychoteuthidae, Lepidoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae, Cranchidae, Octopodidae. Fishes collected by the R/V/ Shinkai Maru around New Zealand. K. Amaoka, K. Matsuura, T. Inadaet al, Japan Marine Fisheries Resource Research Center (p.351)
Key to Geographical Ranges
The symbols K.A.C.F.M.An. are used to indicate the geographical range of the species.
They have been adopted to give an approximation of the range of each species within New Zealand.
Aupourian - Kaipara Harbour, north around North Cape, encompassing the Three Kings Islands and south to East Cape
Cookian - Lower North Island and the northern part of the South Island