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Key to Geographical Ranges
The symbols K.A.C.F.M.An. are used to indicate the geographical range of the species. They have been adopted to give an approxomation of the range of each species within New Zealand.
Kermadec Islands
Aupourian - Kaipara Harbour, north around North Cape, encompassing the Three Kings Islands and south to East Cape
Cookian - Lower North Island and the northern part of the South Island
Forsterian - Otago, Fiordland and Stewart Island
Moriorian - Chatham Islands, Pitt Island
Antipodean - Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand
FW =
L =
E =
I =
Bivalvia - Autobranchia - Pectinida - Family: Spondylidae



Genus: Spondylus

Spondylus nicobaricus Schreibers, 1793 (=sparsispinosus Dall, Bartsch & Rehder)
Height 43mm
Loyalty Ridge, northern Lord Howe Rise, northern Three Kings Rise, Kermadec Ridge and off White Island, north-eastern North Island, 155-841 metres. Also South China Sea and Queensland [K.A]
Spondylus occidens G.B.Sowerby III, 1903 (=jamarci Okutani)
Height 60mm
Norfolk Island to West Norfolk Ridge, Kermadec Islands to Kermadec Ridge 111-220 metres. Also Saya de Malha Bank (Indian Ocean), Japan, Indonesia, Queensland, New Caledonia and Vanuatu [K.]
Spondylus ostreoides E.A.Smith, 1885
Height 13.8mm, Endemic
Off Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, 950 metres [K.E.]
Spondylus proneri Lamprell & Healy, 2001
Height 27mm
Middleton Reef, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and Macauley Island, Kermadec Islands. Also Coral Sea, New Caledonia, Loyalty Ridge and Vanuatu. 210-960 metres [K.]
Spondylus raoulensis Oliver, 1915
Height 130mm, Endemic
Kermadec Islands, 0-113 metres. Occasionally washed ashore on Northland NZ beaches [K.AE.]